ENGLISH LANGUAGEDirections (Q.1 - 10):
Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words are given in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.
Technological innovations are changing and will continue to change every aspect of how we live, work, and learn. These are changing how people communicate and how they spend their time. Among the most exciting innovations are those in areas of mobility, cloud computing, social networking, platforms, location-based services and visual search. The massive shift of Internet use to handheld devices is fundamentally
changing technology and the way it is used. The shift away from PC-centric computing to handheld computing is made possible by Moore's law, which holds that chip processing power will double roughly every 18 - 24 months and the costs will be halved. This geometric increase in processing power has led to the development of powerful handheld devices. For example the 2009 iPhone has identical
technical specifications to the iMac, the most powerful desktop computer in 2001. Today, handheld devices allow us to do things on a mobile that we previously couldn't do. Beyond just phones are other types of mobile devices. eReader devices such as Amazons Kindle and Apple's iPad are creating a rapidly growing eBook market. Now available in a hundred countries. eBooks grew 100% in 2009 alone. At Amazon, for books available in electronic form, 50% of the books' sales are in eBook form. This past Christmas, another company sold more eBooks than hard copy books. The iPad will ultimately be highly disruptive device with the potential to change how media are disseminated and consumed: this includes changing how textbooks are delivered. These and other emerging technologies will impact how student; study and how professors do research. The traditional ways of disseminating knowledge through books and articles will need to evolve. Cloud computing is changing how information and applications are stored and delivered. Through the remote delivery of computing power, storage and applications, cloud computing is quickly changing how information is delivered. From a corporate standpoint, the economics of cloud computing are remarkable. Information, delivered through huge data centres built by companies, cuts costs by a factor of seven. This fundamentally alters the IT cost equation for all companies, regardless of size. Applications that have historically been hosted on in-house servers from Customer Relationship Management (CRM) to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) are now moving to outsourced cloud - hosted servers and data centres. Or the consumer side, cloud computing is and will be everywhere: in music video, applications, and photos. It is likely that within 18 months, instead of our personal computers storing our music, our libraries will be moved to the cloud. User concerns about security are the largest drawback to cloud computing. This is a critical issue that needs to be addressed
on and ongoing basis.
In addition to changing how data is delivered, cloud computing also is becoming a 'platform'. This means it is the basis for providing a set of applications that deliver ongoing value. The iPhone is a platform. There are now 140,000 applications for the iPhone, which have been downloaded more than 3 billion times; 1 billion downloads were made just in the fourth quarter of 2009. Facebook is a platform for which 350,000 applications have been written and downloaded half a billion times. In addition, there are several potential platforms. Ford plans to incorporate iPhone applications in their next generation of vehicles. TV will be a huge platform of the future, serving as a basis for social media, social interaction, and social networks.
Social networks have global reach, with more than 830 million users. Facebook and YouTube have replaced old Internet companies such as Yahoo and Microsoft. Facebook users spend 90 billion minutes per month on the site.
Lastly, among the many innovations, two types of innovations stand out. One - Location based services, which identify your location and offer information about local restaurants, hotels, and other services. Location-based services also can provide navigation and will ultimately deliver advertising on a location basis. Second - Visual search, an example to which is a new phone based application offered by Google called Google Goggles. It uses pictures to search the web and immediately provide information. For example, if you take a picture of a restaurant, it will give you reviews of the restaurant before you walk in. Visual search has the potential to significantly impact how students learn and interact with their professors, challenging traditional methods of engagement.